Tag Archives: WikiLeaks

Chelsea Manning faces indefinite solitary confinement for possessing Vanity Fair magazine

The U.S. military maintains that it is committed to “a fair and equitable process” in the case of national security leaker Chelsea Manning and other prisoners accused of breaking rules at the military prison at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas.

The response comes after Manning’s lawyer disclosed that the transgender Army private faces charges at an Aug. 18 hearing (today) for allegedly having a copy of Vanity Fair with Caitlyn Jenner on the cover and an expired tube of toothpaste, among other things. The maximum penalty is indefinite solitary confinement.

The former intelligence analyst was convicted in 2013 of espionage and other offenses for sending more than 700,000 classified documents to WikiLeaks while working in Iraq. The transgender anti-war activist is serving a 35-year sentence for leaking reams of war logs, diplomatic cables and battlefield video to the anti-secrecy website in 2010.

In a statement to the AP, Army spokeswoman Tatjana Christian said Manning’s case wad pending before a disciplinary board, which is “a common practice in correctional systems to hold prisoners accountable to facility rules.” The military released no details of the alleged conduct that led to the disciplinary report against Manning.

Manning’s attorney, Nancy Hollander, said the prison charges include possession of prohibited property in the form of books and magazines while under administrative segregation; medicine misuse over the toothpaste; disorderly conduct for sweeping food onto the floor; and disrespect. All of the accusations relate to conduct on July 2 and July 9.

Some military legal experts familiar with the facility expressed skepticism that Manning would be punished with indefinite solitary confinement.

Victor Hansen, a retired Army judge advocate who teaches at the New England School of Law in Boston, said conditions at Fort Leavenworth are less restrictive than for inmates in the federal prison system because inmates with a military background have some experience following orders and do “not chaff at rules and regulations like someone who has not had exposure to that.”

Hansen said it is unlikely that prison officials would go after Manning just for having reading material and that there has to be more behind the charges than either the military or her supporters are saying.

Most discipline in the military is progressive and meted in a measured way, with the solitary confinement reserved as kind of “the nuclear option.”

Michael Navarre, an adviser to the National Institute of Military Justice and former Navy judge advocate, said Fort Leavenworth is well run, well organized and known to keep “a good rein on inmates.”

“My impression has always been that the military  has fewer prison-violence and serious-offense issues than other systems do,” Navarre said. “And so I would think there would be a less prevalent use of solitary confinement.”

Solitary confinement is common in civilian prisons, jails and detention centers across the United States, where there are an estimated 80,000 people in solitary confinement on any given day, said Alexis Agathocleous, deputy legal director at the Center for Constitutional Rights.

Mid-morning on Aug. 18, supporters of Manning delivered petitions containing more than 100,000 signatures urging the military to drop the charges.

Chase Strangio, Manning’s attorney at the ACLU, said, “During the five years she has been incarcerated, Chelsea has had to endure horrific and, at times, plainly unconstitutional conditions of confinement. She now faces the threat of further dehumanization because she allegedly disrespected an officer when requesting an attorney and had in her possession various books and magazines that she used to educate herself and inform her public and political voice. I am heartened to see the outpouring of support for her in the face of these new threats to her safety and security. This support can break down the isolation of her incarceration and sends the message to the government that the public is watching and standing by her as she fights for her freedom and her voice.”

Evan Greer, campaign director of Fight for the Future, added, “The U.S. government has a terrifying track record of using imprisonment and torture to silence free speech and dissenting voices. They’ve tortured Chelsea Manning before and now they’re threatening to do it again, without any semblance of due process. Perhaps the military thought that now that Chelsea is behind bars she’s been forgotten, but the tens of thousands who signed this petition are proving them wrong. Chelsea Manning is a hero and the whole world is watching the U.S. government’s deplorable treatment of whistleblowers, transgender people, and prison inmates in general.”

Nancy Mancias, of the peace group CODEPINK, said, “The recent charges are inappropriate, extreme and ridiculous, Chelsea Manning has done a great service by leaking U.S. war crimes in Iraq. Manning should have a right to legal counsel when requested, and threatening to her isolate from community is inhumane.”

 

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San Francisco Pride organizers name Chelsea Manning honorary grand marshal

Army Pvt. Chelsea Manning, the whistleblower in prison at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, is the honorary grand marshal of this year’s San Francisco Pride parade.

Manning, in a statement released through her support network, said, “As a trans* woman, I appreciate the Pride movement’s significant role in bringing together diverse communities and elevating the public profile of the fight for queer rights. I have always enjoyed attending Pride celebrations given the opportunity, and I’m deeply honored to receive this title.”

The statement noted that Manning uses an asterisk after “trans” to “denote not only transgender men and women, but also those who identify outside of a gender binary.”

Last spring, Manning was selected as one of several grand marshals in the 2013 parade. But within 24 hours of making the selection public, the Pride parade board president rescinded the honor, trigger widespread controversy and debate in the national LGBT community.

Since then, Manning has been convicted of multiple offenses for providing classified documents to WikiLeaks. She also has come out as transgender and is waging a campaign for fair and respectful treatment of transgender people in the federal and military prison systems.

This year’s San Francisco Pride board president, Gary Virginia said in a statement, “SF Pride’s oversight of the Electoral College community grand marshal nomination and election process in 2013 was mishandled. Even with this controversy, thousands of Manning supporters in the 2013 Pride Parade represented the largest non-corporate, walking contingent in the parade.  I want to publicly apologize to Chelsea Manning and her supporters on behalf of SF Pride, and we look forward to a proper honor this year.”

The parade takes place on June 29 and the Chelsea Manning Support Network plans a large presence.

The network is working to help raise money for Manning’s legal appeals, as well as to further her request for hormone replacement therapy and a legal name change.

IMAGE THIS PAGE: How Chelsea Manning sees herself as a trans woman. This image was created by artist Alicia Neal, in cooperation with Manning, according to the Chelsea Manning Support Network.

General upholds conviction, 35-year sentence in Chelsea Manning case

An Army general has upheld the conviction and 35-year prison sentence for Private Chelsea Manning, who turned over classified U.S. government information to the anti-secrecy website WikiLeaks.

Maj. Gen. Jeffery S. Buchanan, commander of the Military District of Washington, upheld the conviction according to an announcement from the Army on April 14.

That decision now clears the way for an automatic appeal of the case to the Army Court of Criminal Appeals.

Manning’s appellate lawyers said on April 13 that they expected the appeal to focus on issues including alleged misuse of the Espionage Act.

Manning, a 26-year-old native of Crescent, Okla., was sentenced in August 2013 for six Espionage Act violations and 14 other offenses for leaking more than 700,000 secret military and State Department documents, plus some battlefield video, while serving in Iraq in 2009 and 2010.

Buchanan had the option of approving or reducing the court-martial findings.

Manning is serving her sentence at Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

Military prosecutors at Manning’s trial last summer called the former intelligence analyst an anarchist hacker and traitor who indiscriminately leaked information she had sworn to protect.

The leak was one of the largest of classified information in U.S. history.

Manning’s supporters say she is a whistleblower who exposed U.S. war crimes and diplomatic hypocrisy while working in Iraq.

Manning was convicted in July 2013 of 20 crimes but acquitted of the most serious charge, aiding the enemy.

After sentencing, Manning came out as a transgender woman.

Editor’s note: This is a developing story. Please check back for updates.

Manning releases statement: I am Chelsea Manning. I am female

Updated: The soldier sentenced to 35 years in prison for sending a trove of classified information to Wikileaks released a statement on Aug. 22 identifying as Chelsea Manning, announcing plans to live as a woman and begin the transitioning process.

The written statement was provided to NBC’s “Today” show. The show’s website contained Manning’s statement, which was headlined, “Subject: The Next Stage of My Life” and read:

I want to thank everybody who has supported me over the last three years. Throughout this long ordeal, your letters of support and encouragement have helped keep me strong. I am forever indebted to those who wrote to me, made a donation to my defense fund, or came to watch a portion of the trial. I would especially like to thank Courage to Resist and the Bradley Manning Support Network for their tireless efforts in raising awareness for my case and providing for my legal representation.

As I transition into this next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me. I am Chelsea Manning. I am a female. Given the way that I feel, and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible. I hope that you will support me in this transition. I also request that, starting today, you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun (except in official mail to the confinement facility). I look forward to receiving letters from supporters and having the opportunity to write back.

Thank you, Chelsea E. Manning

Within an hour of Manning’s announcement, supporters updated their protest campaign to the Free Chelsea movement and flooded social media with positive and appreciative statements.

A number of LGBT civil rights groups also responded to the Manning’s formal coming out as transgender and encouraged people, especially those in the news media, to be respectful.

The Human Rights Campaign said in a release, “Pvt. Chelsea Manning’s transition deserves to be treated with dignity and respect. As she requested in her letter, journalists and other officials should use her chosen name of Chelsea and refer to her with female pronouns. Using the name Bradley or male pronouns is nothing short of an insult. Media, having reported on her wishes, must respect them as is the standard followed by the AP Stylebook.”

HRC also said, “As Pvt. Manning serves her sentence, she deserves the same thing that any incarcerated person does – appropriate and competent medical care and protection from discrimination and violence. The care she receives should be something that she and her doctors – including professionals who understand transgender care – agree is best for her.  There is a clear legal consensus that it is the government’s responsibility to provide medically necessary care for transgender people and the military has an obligation to follow those guidelines.”

A military judge announced Manning’s prison sentence on Aug. 22.

Gender identity was a key part of the defense in the trial of Manning, who had previously identified as gay but has long talked about struggles with gender identity.

Attorneys had presented evidence that Manning was struggling with gender identity, including a photo of the soldier in a blond wig and lipstick that Manning had sent to a therapist.

Manning also wrote a letter to the president this week, which his defense attorney read into the record. The letter, which requested a pardon, explained concerns for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and expressed a love for country and people, read:

The decisions that I made in 2010 were made out of a concern for my country and the world that we live in. Since the tragic events of 9/11, our country has been at war. We’ve been at war with an enemy that chooses not to meet us on any traditional battlefield, and due to this fact we’ve had to alter our methods of combating the risks posed to us and our way of life.

I initially agreed with these methods and chose to volunteer to help defend my country. It was not until I was in Iraq and reading secret military reports on a daily basis that I started to question the morality of what we were doing. It was at this time I realized that (in) our efforts to meet the risk posed to us by the enemy, we have forgotten our humanity. We consciously elected to devalue human life both in Iraq and Afghanistan. When we engaged those that we perceived were the enemy, we sometimes killed innocent civilians. Whenever we killed innocent civilians, instead of accepting responsibility for our conduct, we elected to hide behind the veil of national security and classified information in order to avoid any public accountability.

In our zeal to kill the enemy, we internally debated the definition of torture. We held individuals at Guantanamo for years without due process. We inexplicably turned a blind eye to torture and executions by the Iraqi government. And we stomached countless other acts in the name of our war on terror.

Patriotism is often the cry extolled when morally questionable acts are advocated by those in power. When these cries of patriotism drown out any logically based dissension, it is usually the American soldier that is given the order to carry out some ill-conceived mission.

Our nation has had similar dark moments for the virtues of democracy – the Trail of Tears, the Dred Scott decision, McCarthyism, and the Japanese-American internment camps – to mention a few. I am confident that many of the actions since 9/11 will one day be viewed in a similar light.

As the late Howard Zinn once said, “There is not a flag large enough to cover the shame of killing innocent people.”

I understand that my actions violated the law; I regret if my actions hurt anyone or harmed the United States. It was never my intent to hurt anyone. I only wanted to help people. When I chose to disclose classified information, I did so out of a love for my country and a sense of duty to others.

If you deny my request for a pardon, I will serve my time knowing that sometimes you have to pay a heavy price to live in a free society. I will gladly pay that price if it means we could have a country that is truly conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all women and men are created equal.

Editor’s note: This is a developing story that will be updated.


Manning releases statement, wants to live as a woman

The soldier sentenced to 35 years in prison for sending a trove of classified information to Wikileaks released a statement on Aug. 22 identifying as Chelsea Manning, announcing plans to live as a woman and begin a transitioning process.

The written statement was provided to NBC’s “Today” show.

The show’s website contained Manning’s statement, which was headlined, “Subject: The Next Stage of My Life” and read

I want to thank everybody who has supported me over the last three years. Throughout this long ordeal, your letters of support and encouragement have helped keep me strong. I am forever indebted to those who wrote to me, made a donation to my defense fund, or came to watch a portion of the trial. I would especially like to thank Courage to Resist and the Bradley Manning Support Network for their tireless efforts in raising awareness for my case and providing for my legal representation.

As I transition into this next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me. I am Chelsea Manning. I am a female. Given the way that I feel, and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible. I hope that you will support me in this transition. I also request that, starting today, you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun (except in official mail to the confinement facility). I look forward to receiving letters from supporters and having the opportunity to write back.

Thank you, Chelsea E. Manning

A military judge announced the sentence in Manning’s court-martial on Aug. 22.

Gender identity was a key part of the defense in the trial of Manning, who had previously identified as gay but has long talked about struggles with gender identity.

Attorneys had presented evidence that Manning was struggling with gender identity, including a photo of the soldier in a blond wig and lipstick that Manning had sent to a therapist.

Editor’s note: This is a developing story that will be updated.

100,000 call for Manning to receive Nobel Peace Prize

About 100,000 people have signed an internet petition saying they think gay Army Pfc. Bradley Manning should be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

The petition is being circulated by RootsAction.org and the co-founder of the cyber activist group, Norman Solomon, says he has plans to deliver the petition to the Nobel committee in Oslo later this week.

Manning was formally nominated for the prize by recipient Mairead Corrigan-Maguire, who has said, “I can think of no one more deserving.” She said Manning, convicted of espionage for relaying hundreds of thousands of documents to WikiLeaks, helped end the Iraq War and “and may have helped prevent further conflicts elsewhere.”

Manning faces up to 136 years in prison for leaking diplomatic cables, plus 470,000 Iraq and Afghanistan battlefield reports and some warzone video while working as an intelligence analyst in Iraq in 2010.

He said he leaked the material to expose wrongdoing by the military and U.S. diplomats.

Prosecutors said Manning is a traitor and leaking the material threatened U.S. security and the lives of servicemembers.

Barack Obama is the last American to win the Nobel Peace Prize. He received the honor in 2009, the first year of his presidency.

On the Web…

http://rootsaction.org/featured-actions/615-bradley-mannings-nobel-peace-prize

Hollywood takes interest in Bradley Manning story

The story of WikiLeaks is the kind of real-life drama Hollywood loves, so expect to see multiple interpretations of it on the big screen.

Several projects chronicle the organization’s enigmatic leader Julian Assange and recently convicted leaker Bradley Manning.

Alex Gibney’s documentary, “We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks,” was released earlier this year. Bill Condon’s narrative take on the tale, “The Fifth Estate,” will premiere in September at the Toronto Film Festival.

Two other WikiLeaks projects are in development. “Zero Dark Thirty” screenwriter Mark Boal optioned a New York Times article about Assange earlier this year, and Gibney acquired the rights last year to Denver Nicks’ 2012 book, “Private: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks, and the Biggest Exposure of Official Secrets in American History.”

“The Bradley Manning story is easily one of the most important stories of the last decade,” Nicks told Democracy Now! last year. “In many ways, Bradley Manning’s story is the story of the United States in the post-9/11 era.”

Military judge finds Manning not guilty of aiding the enemy

UPDATE: Military judge finds Manning not guilty of aiding the enemy.

A U.S. military judge issued a verdict today in the case of gay Army soldier Bradley Manning, who was facing life in prison for giving thousands of pieces of classified military and diplomatic information to the anti-secrecy website WikiLeaks in one of the largest leaks in American history.

Manning was found not guilty of aiding the enemy but convicted on charges of espionage and theft.

The prosecution said the 25-year-old is a glory-seeking traitor.

His defense lawyers called him a naive whistleblower who was horrified by wartime atrocities but didn’t know that the material he leaked would end up in the hands of al-Qaida and Osama bin Laden.

Army Col. Denise Lind began deliberating late last week after hearing nearly two months of conflicting evidence and arguments about the 25-year-old intelligence analyst. A military judge, not a jury, heard the case at Manning’s request.

The most serious of the charges against Manning was aiding the enemy, which carried a potential life sentence in prison. And the judge, according to various press reports released shortly after 1 p.m. EST, found Manning not guilty on this charge.

Manning’s supporters had said that a conviction on the charge would have a chilling effect on government accountability by deterring people from disclosing official secrets to journalists. WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange said in a telephone press conference last week that if Manning is convicted of aiding the enemy, it will be “the end of national security journalism in the United States.”

He accused the Obama administration of waging a “war on whistleblowers” and a “war on journalism.”

Prosecutors argued Manning knew the material would be seen across the globe, including by bin Laden, when he started the leaks in late 2009. Manning said he didn’t’ start leaking until February 2010.

“Worldwide distribution, that was his goal,” said the military’s lead prosecutor, Maj. Ashden Fein, during closing arguments. “Pfc. Manning knew the entire world included the enemy, from his training. He knew he was giving it to the enemy, specifically al-Qaida.”

Defense attorney David Coombs said Manning was negligent in releasing classified material, but lacked the “evil intent” that prosecutors must prove to convict him of aiding the enemy.

Coombs called the government’s final remarks “a diatribe … fictional … fantastical,” and said it leaped to conclusions and contradicted itself in areas where prosecutors could not prove something with facts.

After Coombs finished his three-hour-long argument, there was a smattering of applause from Manning supporters, who were hushed by the judge.

Manning also faced federal espionage and theft charges, and he was found guilty of those.

Manning had acknowledged giving WikiLeaks some 700,000 battlefield reports, diplomatic cables and videos, but he says he didn’t believe the information would harm troops in Afghanistan and Iraq or threaten national security.

“The amount of the documents in this case, actually, is the best evidence that he was discreet in what he chose, because if he was indiscriminate, if he was systematically harvesting, we wouldn’t be talking about a few hundred thousand documents – we’d be talking about millions of documents,” Coombs said.

Giving the material to WikiLeaks was no different than giving it to a newspaper, Coombs said. The government disagreed and said Manning would also have been charged if he had leaked the classified material to the media.

Coombs showed three snippets of video from a 2007 U.S. Apache helicopter attack Manning leaked, showing troops firing on a small crowd of men on a Baghdad sidewalk, killing several civilians, including a Reuters news photographer and his driver. Coombs said the loss of civilian lives horrified the young soldier.

“You have to look at that from the point of view of a guy who cared about human life,” Coombs said.

Coombs has said Manning wanted to do something to make a difference, and he hoped revealing what was going on in Iraq and Afghanistan and U.S. diplomacy would inspire debate and reform in foreign and military policy.

Coombs also countered one of prosecutor Fein’s arguments that attempted to show Manning was seeking fame: A photo Manning took of himself, smiling in front of a mirror while on leave. Fein said it showed a “gleeful, grinning” Manning who was proud to be “on his way to notoriety” he wanted.

Coombs asked the judge to take a closer look at the photo, pointing out that Manning was wearing makeup and a bra.

“Maybe, just maybe … he is happy to be himself for that moment,” Coombs said of Manning’s struggle to fit into the military at a time when he was confused about his gender identity and serving openly was illegal for gays.

After his arrest in May 2010, Manning was held alone for nine months in a windowless cell 23 hours a day, sometimes with no clothing. Jailers at the Marine Corps base in Quantico, Virginia, said they considered him a suicide risk. Lind later ruled Manning had been illegally punished and should get 112 days off any prison sentence he receives. 

Editor’s note: This story will be updated.

Bradley Manning awarded international peace prize

Bradley Manning, the gay U.S. soldier on trial in the WikiLeaks case, has received honors from the International Peace Bureau.

The organization awarded the whistleblower its Sean MacBride Peace Prize “for his courageous actions in revealing information about US war crimes.”       

Manning was arrested in May 2010 after allegedly leaking more than 250,000 U.S. diplomatic cables, 400,000 U.S. Army reports about Iraq and another 90,000 about Afghanistan, as well as the material used in the “Collateral Murder” video produced by WikiLeaks. The video footage showed the the July 12, 2007, Baghdad airstrike and the 2009 Garani airstrike in Afghanistan.

Manning has been detained since his arrest, first in Kuwait, then in solitary confinement at the Marine Corps Brig in Quantico, Va., and then, after human rights groups protested his prison conditions, at a medium-security military prison at Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

Manning pleaded not guilty in February to 10 of the 22 charges, which could carry a sentence of up to 20 years.

His trial is now nearing the end.

International Peace Bureau co-president Tomas Magnusson, in a news release, said, “Among the very highest moral duties of a citizen is to make known war crimes and crimes against humanity. This is within the broad meaning of the Nuremberg Principles enunciated at the end of the 2nd World War. When Manning revealed to the world the crimes being committed by the US military he did so as an act of obedience to this high moral duty.”

Prosecution rests in Bradley Manning trial

Prosecutors rested their case against Pfc. Bradley Manning on July 2 after presenting evidence from 80 witnesses, trying to prove the former U.S. Army intelligence analyst let military secrets fall into the hands of al-Qaida and its former leader Osama bin Laden.

The 25-year-old native of Crescent, Okla., is charged with 21 offenses, including aiding the enemy, which carries a possible life sentence. To prove that charge, prosecutors must show Manning gave intelligence to the anti-secrecy website WikiLeaks, knowing it would be published online and seen by an enemy of the United States.

Manning has acknowledged sending more than 700,000 Iraq and Afghanistan war logs and State Department diplomatic cables, along with several battlefield video clips, to WikiLeaks while working in Baghdad from November 2009 through May 2010.

The defense could begin its case as early as next Monday, when the trial will resume. Manning’s defense said at the opening of the trial that he was a young and naive, but a good-intentioned soldier whose struggle to fit in as a gay man in the military made him feel he “needed to do something to make a difference in this world.”

He told a military judge in February he leaked the war logs to document “the true costs of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan,” including the deaths of two Reuters employees killed in a U.S. helicopter attack. Manning said the diplomatic cables revealed secret pacts and deceit he thought should be exposed.

Prosecutors presented evidence that Manning, a former intelligence analyst, used military computers in Iraq to download reams of documents and battlefield video from a classified network, transferred some of the material to his personal computer and sent it to WikiLeaks.

The evidence showed Manning’s training repeatedly instructed him not to give classified information to unauthorized people.

As they wrapped up their case, prosecutors offered that al-Qaida leaders reveled in WikiLeaks’ publication of classified U.S. documents, urging members to study them before devising ways to attack the United States.

“By the grace of God the enemy’s interests are today spread all over the place,” Adam Gadahn, a spokesman for the terrorist group, said in a 2011 al-Qaida propaganda video. The video specifically referred to material available on the WikiLeaks website.

The government also presented evidence that bin Laden asked for and received from an associate the Afghanistan battlefield reports WikiLeaks published. The evidence was a written statement, agreed to by the defense, that the material was found on digital media seized in the May 2011 raid on bin Laden’s compound in Pakistan. Bin Laden was killed in the raid.

Prosecutors struggled to prove Manning collaborated with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange or looked to the website for guidance – assertions meant to show that he leaked the material with evil intent.

Manning’s intent is a key issue, said Philip Cave, a retired Navy lawyer in private practice in Alexandria, Va.

“I think it was pretty clear that WikiLeaks would have released anything and everything,” he said. “Just because he did it that way, is that evidence of intent to share it with the enemy?”

Manning faces eight espionage counts and a computer fraud charge, all alleging he either exceeded his authorized access to classified information or had unauthorized possession of national defense material. His top-secret clearance enabled him to look at many kinds of classified information, but an information assurance officer, Capt. Thomas Cherepko, testified that “having the ability to go there doesn’t mean you have the need or authority to go there.”

Manning is also charged with five counts of theft, each alleging he stole a something of value worth more than $1,000.

The trial is being heard by a judge, not a jury. It began June 3 and was in session for 14 days before the prosecution rested.

Prosecutors requested fewer courtroom closures to discuss classified information than they projected before the trial started. Maj. Ashden Fein initially said as much as 30 percent of the government’s case would require closing the courtroom, but there were only three secret sessions.

“They may have felt that it was not serving public confidence in the administration of justice to run any more of it than was absolutely necessary behind closed doors,” said Eugene Fidell, who teaches military justice at Yale Law School.

Manning has pleaded guilty to reduced charges on seven of eight espionage counts and two computer fraud counts. He also has pleaded guilty to violating a military regulation prohibiting wrongful storage of classified information. The offenses carry a combined maximum prison term of 20 years.

Despite his pleas, prosecutors are seeking to convict him of the original charges.

On June 30, more than 2,000 people marched in San Francisco’s Pride parade as part of a “Free Bradley Manning” contingent. A Pride committee had elected Manning as the parade’s grand marshal but the committee decision was overturned by the Pride board.