Tag Archives: soy sauce

Soy sauce molecule may unlock drug therapy for HIV patients

Virologists at the University of Missouri now are testing the next generation of HIV medications, and they are using a molecule related to flavor enhancers found in soy sauce.

For HIV patients being treated with anti-AIDS medications, resistance to drug therapy regimens is commonplace. Often, patients develop resistance to first-line drug therapies, such as Tenofovir, and are forced to adopt more potent medications. University of Missouri virologists say a molecule related to flavor enhancers in soy sauce could be used to develop compounds more potent than Tenofovir.

“Patients who are treated for HIV infections with Tenofovir eventually develop resistance to the drugs that prevent an effective or successful defense against the virus,” said Stefan Sarafianos, associate professor of molecular microbiology and immunology in the University of Missouri School of Medicine, and a virologist at the Bond Life Sciences Center at MU. “EFdA, the molecule we are studying, is less likely to cause resistance in HIV patients because it is more readily activated and is less quickly broken down by the body as similar existing drugs.”

In 2001, a Japanese soy sauce company inadvertently discovered the EFdA molecule while trying to enhance the flavor of their product. The flavor enhancer is part of the family of compounds called “nucleoside analogues” which is very similar to existing drugs for the treatment of HIV and other viruses. EFdA samples were sent for further testing, which confirmed EFdA’s potential usefulness against HIV and started more than a decade of research.

EFdA, along with eight existing HIV drugs, is part of the class of compounds called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs “hijack” the HIV replicating process by “tricking” building blocks inside the virus. Since EFdA appears similar to those building blocks, the virus is misled into using the imposter, which prevents HIV replication and halts the spread of the virus.

In their latest study, Sarafianos and his colleagues, including researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and the National Institutes of Health, helped define how EFdA works on a molecular level.

Using virology techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, they pieced together the exact structure and configuration of the molecule. Compounds developed by Sarafianos and his team currently are being tested for usefulness as potential HIV-halting drugs with the pharmaceutical company Merck.

“The structure of this compound is very important because it is a lock-and-key kind of mechanism that can be recognized by the target,” Sarafianos said. “Not only does EFdA work on resistant HIV, it works better on HIV that has not become Tenofovir resistant.”

Grants from the National Institutes of Health funded the research.

Former NFL player charged with assaulting ex-boyfriend

A former NFL player faces felony domestic violence charges for assaulting his ex-boyfriend last August, according to published reports.

Kwame Harris, who played offensive tackle with the San Francisco 49ers from 2003 to 2007, has been charged with “felony counts of domestic violence causing great bodily injury and assault with force likely to produce great bodily injury.”

Prosecutors in San Mateo County, Calif., say the violence erupted from an argument with ex-boyfriend Dimitri Geier over soy sauce at a Chinese restaurant in Menlo Park.

The San Jose Mercury News reported that Harris and Geier were sharing dinner at Su Hong restaurant en route to San Francisco International Airport. Harris became angry when Geier poured soy sauce over rice.

An ensuing argument came to blows. Harris broke bones around Geier’s eye socket. A metal plate had to be installed in Geier’s face to repair the physical damage.

Harris, who claims he is not guilty, faces up to nine years in prison if convicted.

Harris, has never come out, but both the prosecutor and Harris’ attorney said the men were romantically involved and print accounts referred to the two as ex-boyfriends.

Harris is free on $75,000 bail. A trial is scheduled in February.