Tag Archives: hate crime

Shooting suspect asked for directions to Planned Parenthood clinic

The man accused of killing three people at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Colorado asked at least one person in a nearby shopping center for directions to the facility before opening fire, a law enforcement official said, offering the clearest suggestion yet that he was targeting the reproductive health organization.

The official was not authorized to publicly discuss the investigation and spoke to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity.

Prosecutors are charging Robert Lewis Dear, 57, with murder and other crimes in the Nov. 27 attack that also left nine other people wounded. Colorado Springs police have refused to discuss a motive for the fusillade, but there’s mounting evidence to suggest Dear was deeply concerned about abortion, having rambled to authorities about “no more baby parts” after his arrest.

Dear asked at least one person in the nearby shopping center where the Planned Parenthood was earlier that morning, the official said.

A second law enforcement official said Dear assembled propane tanks around a vehicle and brought at least 10 guns, including rifles and handguns, to the clinic, where he swapped gunfire with officers during an hours-long standoff. It was unclear whether Dear purchased all of them, but despite brushes with the law, he had no felony convictions that would have prevented him from buying a firearm.

Planned Parenthood cited witnesses as saying the gunman was motivated by his opposition to abortion.

A Colorado Springs police spokeswoman this week referred questions about the investigation to El Paso County Sheriff’s spokeswoman Teri Frank, who said she could not comment on the ongoing investigation. 

Dear had been living in remote locations without electricity or water and was known to hold survivalist ideas. One of his three ex-wives, Barbara Mescher Micheau of Moncks Corner, South Carolina, said he had vandalized a South Carolina abortion clinic at least 20 years earlier, announcing to her that he had put glue in the locks of its doors, a common protest technique among activists trying to shut down abortion clinics.

Colorado Springs Mayor John Suthers would not discuss Dear’s motive or details of the investigation, but he praised responding officers, who he said rescued 24 people from inside the clinic building and helped remove 300 people from the surrounding businesses where they had been hiding while the shooting unfolded.

“They went in at their own peril, but that contributed to basically 24 people getting out of that building safely,” Suthers said of the officers. Six officers were shot in the rampage, one of them fatally. The other victims were accompanying separate friends to the clinic when they were killed.

Washington man sentenced to prison for attacking gay men with knife

A 34-year-old Bremerton man has been sentenced to two and a half years in prison after admitting he attacked three gay men in Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood with a knife.

Troy Deacon Burns pleaded guilty to a federal hate crime in August.

The attack occurred last January when Burns came up behind the men and shouted homophobic slurs. He was holding a knife and raised it over his head in a stabbing position.

The men began running, but Burns caught up to one and tried to stab him. Another man pulled the friend away and Burns was arrested.

Burns said at his plea hearing that he was under the influence of drugs and alcohol and didn’t remember what happened.

Judge James L. Robart sentenced Burns earlier this week.

2 men reach plea deal in beating of gay couple, banned from Philadelphia’s downtown

Two men accused of beating a gay couple in a case helped solved by social media sleuths will avoid prison time under a plea agreement announced late last week that outraged members of the gay community.

Instead, prosecutors said, Philip Williams and Kevin Harrigan must stay away from downtown Philadelphia for several years, pay just under $1,000 in restitution and perform 200 hours of service at a facility serving the LGBT community.

In a tweet, gay writer and activist Dan Savage called the sentence “appalling.”

Williams, 24, and Harrigan, 26, apologized to the victims and the judge as they pleaded guilty to assault and conspiracy charges in the attack last year that left one victim with a broken jaw and cheekbones. They said the beating wasn’t motivated by the couple’s sexual orientation.

Prosecutors said the victims, Zachary Hesse and Andy Haught, had encouraged a resolution that avoided excessive punishment while sending a positive message about tolerance and understanding. Pennsylvania’s hate crime law does not cover sexual orientation.

“Today’s agreement is certainly about justice, but it is also about honoring the wishes of the victims to make sure they can continue to heal and gain closure,” District Attorney Seth Williams said in a statement.

A third defendant, Kathryn Knott, will go to trial.

Prosecutors say Williams and Harrigan, from the suburban communities of Warminster and Warrington, were part of a group that hurled gay slurs and profanity and beat Hesse and Haught near Philadelphia’s ritzy Rittenhouse Square on Sept. 11, 2014.

The case gained attention when police posted a video of the suspects, and online followers used social media sites to help identify them.

“This affected the sense of security for all people in Center City, particularly people who are gay and lesbian,” Assistant District Attorney Michael Barry said. The defendants, he said, damaged Philadelphia’s reputation as a safe, gay friendly city.

The plea deal further tarnished that reputation in the eyes of dozens of Twitter users who sent the district attorney’s office messages of outrage.

One of them, Sam Ritchie of the Innocence Project, wrote: “They didn’t even admit what they did And still they got a slap on the wrist. Shame on you (at)DASethWilliams! (hash)LGBT”.

Banning defendants from a certain part of the city isn’t common, Barry said.

It’s usually employed when defendants don’t have a connection to the area where the crime occurred, he said, like when a dealer sells drugs in a neighborhood far from where he lives.

Williams must stay away from downtown for the five years of his probation. Harrigan cannot return until his three years of probation are completed. Neither objected to the ban, which was also a condition of their bail, Barry said.

They could be granted temporary exemptions to attend necessary appointments, Barry said.

Williams and Harrigan’s whereabouts won’t be subject to electronic monitoring, but many downtown police officers are familiar with the case and know to be on the lookout, Barry said.

“It’s not the easiest thing to enforce,” he said.

Florida man charged with 2 deaths in Tampa’s LGBT community

Authorities say a southwest Florida man charged in the shooting death of a transgender woman has been charged in a second killing.

Keith Lamayne Gaillard, 18, is currently being held on a first-degree murder charge in the death of 25-year-old India Clarke. Officials say Gaillard’s DNA was found under Clarke’s fingernails. Detectives also reported finding a condom with Gaillard’s DNA inside Clarke’s car, which was found nearby. Her body was found July 21.

About a week later, Tampa police say Gaillard shot 46-year-old Tyrone Sean Davis in the back of the head. Davis’ family said they think he was gay.

Gaillard was charged late last week in the second slaying.

Police said they found the suspect’s fingerprints in Davis’ car.

The Tampa Bay Times reports a witness told police that Gaillard admitted killing Davis.

South Carolina lawmakers agree to debate removal of Confederate flag

South Carolina lawmakers took their first step toward removing the Confederate battle flag from their Statehouse grounds June 23, as protesters outside demanded the flag come down in response to the hate-crime killings of nine people inside their historic black church.

The measure enabling lawmakers to debate the flag removal later this summer needed two-thirds approval. It passed the House by a vote of 103-10. The Senate later approved it with a voice vote.

State Sen. Paul Thurmond, a Charleston Republican, said he loves his ancestors, but he supports moving the flag to a museum. But he said he isn’t proud of a heritage that included holding people in bondage, and he wants to send a message to anyone who might proudly display the banner before committing racial hate crimes.

Gov. Nikki Haley’s unexpected call for the flag to come down also reverberated around the South, as a growing number of other politicians announced their own against the flag.

Haley’s decision, prompted by the massacre inside the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopalian church in Charleston, suddenly eroded the position many southern lawmakers have held onto throughout their careers: that debating the status of the Confederate flag would be too racially divisive.

The Confederate battle flag was placed atop South Carolina’s Statehouse dome in the 1960s as an official protest of the civil rights movement. After mass protests, it was moved to a flagpole next to a Confederate monument out front in 2000, as part of a compromise between a group of black lawmakers and the Republicans who have controlled South Carolina since 2001.

For years, South Carolina lawmakers sought shelter in that bipartisan compromise, saying that renewing the debate would unnecessarily revive painful divisions. Nationally, politicians said it was up to the state to decide. But after Haley’s announcement, even Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell joined the call to remove it.

“The hate-filled murderer who massacred our brothers and sisters in Charleston has a sick and twisted view of the flag. In no way does he reflect the people in our state who respect, and in many ways, revere it,” Haley said on June 22. But she said that for many others, it is a “deeply offensive symbol of a brutally oppressive past,” and argued that removing it from such a public space will help South Carolina come together and heal.

Senate Judiciary Chairman Larry Martin said before the session that it would be impractical and disrespectful to publicly debate the topic while funeral services are being held. On June 26, President Barack Obama plans to deliver his eulogy at the “Mother Emanuel” church in Charleston.

Dylann Storm Roof, faces murder and gun charges in the church attack. The 21-year-old white man had told a friend that he would do something “for the white race” and posed in photos displaying Confederate flags and burning or desecrating U.S. flags, faces murder charges.

Hundreds gathered in sweltering heat outside the Capitol earlier June 23, chanting “bring it down, bring it down,” next to the Confederate monument where South Carolina’s rebel flag flies atop a 30-foot pole, in full view of the U.S. and state flags flying at half-staff.

“With enough political will anything can be done,” said State GOP Chairman Matt Moore. “There is a silent majority of South Carolinians who strongly believe we can have a better future without the flag being on Statehouse grounds.”

Leaders in other states swiftly followed suit: Mississippi House Speaker Philip Gunn called for removing the Confederate emblem to be removed from the state flag and, in Tennessee, both Democrats and Republicans said a bust of Confederate general and Ku Klux Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest must be removed from the Senate.

Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe ordered the replacement of vanity license plates depicting the Confederate flag, saying the banner is “hurtful” for too many people.

And Kentucky’s Republican nominee for governor, Matt Bevin, called for removing a statue of Confederate President Jefferson Davis from his Capitol’s rotunda.

Big businesses also took action: Wal-Mart, e-Bay and Sears Holding Corp. announced they would no longer sell merchandise featuring the Confederate flag, which e-Bay called a “contemporary symbol of divisiveness and racism.”

Gunman kills 9 at historic black church in Charleston, S.C.

A white man opened fire during a prayer meeting inside a historic black church in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, killing nine people, including the pastor, in an assault authorities described as a hate crime.

The suspect attended the meeting at the church on June 17 and stayed for nearly an hour before the deadly gunfire erupted, Police Chief Greg Mullen said.

The shooter remained at large on June 18 and police released photographs from surveillance video of a suspect and a possible getaway vehicle. Mullen said he could not offer a make and model on the dark colored sedan because investigators were not certain about what is shown in the video.

The victims of the shooting were six females and three males. Mullen did not give other details about the victims.

Mullen said he believed the attack at the Emanuel AME Church was a hate crime. The suspect was described as a white man in his early 20s.

“This is a very dangerous individual,” Mullen said early on June 18.

“We want to identify this individual and arrest him before he hurts anyone else,” the chief said.

Mullen said he had no reason to think the suspect has left the Charleston area, but was distributing information about him and the vehicle around the country.

Mullen said the scene at the church was chaotic when police arrived, and the officers thought they had the suspect tracked with a police dog, but he got away.

“We will put all effort, we will put all resources and we will put all of our energy into finding this individual who committed this crime tonight,” he said.

The FBI will aid the investigation, Mullen told an earlier news conference that was attended by FBI Special Agent in Charge David A. Thomas.

Charleston Mayor Joseph P. Riley Jr. called the shooting “an unfathomable and unspeakable act by somebody filled with hate and with a deranged mind.”

“Of all cities, in Charleston, to have a horrible hateful person go into the church and kill people there to pray and worship with each other is something that is beyond any comprehension and is not explained,” Riley said. “We are going to put our arms around that church and that church family.”

State House Minority leader Todd Rutherford told The Associated Press that the church’s pastor, state Sen. Clementa Pinckney, was among those killed.

Pinckney 41, was a married father of two who was elected to the state house at age 23, making him the youngest member of the House at the time.

“He never had anything bad to say about anybody, even when I thought he should,” Rutherford, D-Columbia, said. “He was always out doing work either for his parishioners or his constituents. He touched everybody.”

In a statement, NAACP President and CEO Cornell William Brooks condemned the shooting.

“There is no greater coward than a criminal who enters a house of God and slaughters innocent people engaged in the study of scripture,” Brooks said.

The attack came two months after the fatal shooting of an unarmed black man, Walter Scott, by a white police officer in neighboring North Charleston that sparked major protests and highlighted racial tensions in the area. The officer has been charged with murder, and the shooting prompted South Carolina lawmakers to push through a bill helping all police agencies in the state get body cameras. Pinckney was a sponsor of that bill.

In a statement, Gov. Nikki Haley asked South Carolinians to pray for the victims and their families and decried violence at religious institutions.

“We’ll never understand what motivates anyone to enter one of our places of worship and take the life of another,” Haley said.

Soon after Wednesday night’s shooting, a group of pastors huddled together praying in a circle across the street.

Community organizer Christopher Cason said he felt certain the shootings were racially motivated.

“I am very tired of people telling me that I don’t have the right to be angry,” Cason said. “I am very angry right now.”

Even before Scott’s shooting in April, Cason said he had been part of a group meeting with police and local leaders to try to shore up relations.

The Emmanuel AME church is a historic African-American church that traces its roots to 1816, when several churches split from Charleston’s Methodist Episcopal church.

One of its founders, Denmark Vesey, tried to organize a slave revolt in 1822. He was caught, and white landowners had his church burned in revenge. Parishioners worshipped underground until after the Civil War.

Woman sentenced to 90 days for hate-crime hoax

A woman who faked an anti-gay hate crime has been sentenced to 90 days in jail for violating probation, but she can apply to serve the time on house arrest.

Charlie Rogers, 36, of Lincoln was sentenced late last week in Lancaster County Court, the Lincoln Journal Star reported. 

Rogers had faced up to a year in jail for violating her probation. In March, she acknowledged that she failed to report to jail on Jan. 15 to finish her original 90-day jail sentence.

During her sentencing, Rogers said she didn’t mean to violate the conditions of her probation.

“Please let me go home,” Rogers pleaded with the judge, choking back tears. “I was scared.”

Rogers, a former University of Nebraska-Lincoln basketball standout, was convicted of lying to police about being attacked by masked men. Rogers, who has said she’s a lesbian, said the men carved anti-gay slurs into her skin. She reported on July 12, 2012, that the men who attacked her tried to set fire to her home before leaving. A neighbor told police that Rogers crawled from her home naked, bleeding and screaming for help.

But her story quickly fell apart and prosecutors said Rogers faked the attack because she thought it would inspire change in the treatment of gay people.

She spent seven days in jail after being convicted.

Prosecutors agreed to waive a 90-day jail sentence if she completed community service, but officials say she failed to complete that service.

Instead of reporting to jail on Jan. 15, Rogers began volunteering to cover her community service, logging 200 hours between Jan. 15 and March 9.

An attorney for Rogers said she had already applied to do the jail time on house arrest. If her request is denied, she must report to jail May 29.

College shooting possible hate crime, victim was gay

A former community college student dismissed from a work-study program for too many absences is accused of fatally shooting his former supervisor, who was gay, and police are investigating the campus slaying as a possible hate crime.

Kenneth Morgan Stancil III, 20, was arrested without incident early on April 14 while sleeping on a Florida beach, about 500 miles from Wayne Community College in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Stancil made his first court appearance later in the day, saying in a profanity-laced and unsubstantiated tirade that the man he killed had molested a relative.

Police say Stancil shot 44-year-old Ron Lane on April 13 at the college. Lane, the school’s print shop director, had been Stancil’s supervisor in a work-study program before Stancil was let go in early March. It wasn’t clear how long they had worked together.

Police have not released a motive in the shooting. Stancil’s mother told The Associated Press that Lane “was verbally inappropriate with Morgan at school. Very much verbally inappropriate. He would tell him to stop and he kept on.”

College spokeswoman Tara Humphries said she did not know whether any complaints had been lodged against Lane. Classes were canceled on April 13, but the school re-opened on April 14.

“It’s a day of healing. We will be paying personal tributes to Ron Lane,” Humphries said.

Experts who track hate groups said Stancil’s facial tattoo with the number “88” is a clear indication of a neo-Nazi — a group that has been accused of attacking gays. However, police have not said whether Stancil held white supremacist beliefs or what hate crime they are investigating.

Stancil’s mother said he gave himself the facial tattoo over the weekend and it marked a wannabe rather than someone who expressed neo-Nazi views.

Stancil entered the print shop on the third-floor of a campus building and fired once with a pistol-grip shotgun, police said. The shooting sparked a campus-wide lockdown and officers stormed the building looking for Stancil, who fled on a motorcycle.

“Mr. Stancil had a calculated plan,” Goldsboro police Sgt. Jeremy Sutton said.

He left behind a six-page letter explaining his actions and a video, which have been turned over to police, his mother said.

Police found the motorcycle abandoned in a median on Interstate 95, about 80 miles south of Goldsboro. They are not sure how he got to Florida.

The manhunt lasted for nearly a day, ending with Stancil’s arrest in Daytona Beach. He had a knife on him but was apprehended without incident. Police have not found the 12-gauge shotgun they believe was used to kill Lane.

A booking photo from Florida showed Stancil with the number “88” on his left cheek, a number used by racist extremists, said Brian Levin, a criminal justice professor and director of the Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino. Because “H” is the eighth letter of the alphabet, 88 equates to HH or “Heil Hitler,” Levin said.

“Those who get facial tattoos tend to be the uppermost, anti-social part of the scale,” Levin said.

Goldsboro police and the Wayne County district attorney’s office will work to have Stancil extradited to North Carolina to face a murder charge.

Stancil had no criminal record before the shooting. He was on the school’s dean’s list with a grade point average of 3.6 or better and due to graduate in July with a degree in welding technology, the school said.

Brent Hood, coordinator of education support technology at the college, was Lane’s supervisor for the past three years. He said he thought Stancil killed Lane because he was upset over being dismissed, not because he was gay.

“I guess from my point of view, he (Stancil) was angry over getting dismissed from his duties,” Hood told The Associated Press. “He worked very well with Ron; he worked very well with my other employees.”

NC church members indicted in beating of gay man

For Matthew Fenner, a crowd of parishioners gathering around him in a church sanctuary after a prayer service was a sign of trouble.

Within minutes, he said they began to berate him because he was gay. One woman told him he was “disgusting.” Then for two hours, they pushed and hit Fenner, screaming at him as they tried to “break me free of the homosexual ‘demons,’” he said in a police affidavit about the Jan. 27, 2013 attack.

Nearly two years later, five Word of Faith Fellowship church in Spindale, North Carolina, members have been indicted for kidnapping and assault in connection with Fenner’s beating.

But the case has opened new wounds in the rural North Carolina community where the church has been a lightning rod of controversy.

Now a student at the University of North Carolina, the 21-year-old Fenner told The Associated Press that he believed his life was in danger that night.

He said he had to press authorities to investigate his allegations because of the church’s influence in the community.

“The line between religion and abuse, they are crossing it quite severely. That’s why I’m doing this. They have to know you cannot hurt people,” he said.

But Joshua Farmer, whose law firm is representing the five church members, said that was nonsense.

“In short, this stuff is an absolute complete fabrication,” Farmer told the AP. “They are innocent of the charges.”

This is the latest controversy to surround the church founded in 1979 by Sam and Jane Whaley. The church, which has 750 members and operates a 35-acre complex in the rural community of Spindale, has been accused for years of enforcing extensive control over its congregation.

Former members say they were told by church leaders where to live and work, what to read, how to dress and when to have sex with their spouses.

Word of Faith also practices “blasting,” a form of hands-on, high-pitched, screaming prayer. The church says it doesn’t celebrate Christmas and other holidays because of their pagan origins.

The church was investigated twice in the late 1990s for its treatment of children but was cleared of any wrongdoing.

In recent years, national gay rights groups have criticized Word of Faith after several young men — whose parents are church members — claimed they were abused because they are gay.

“It’s pretty clear to me … that these individuals wanted to inflict pain on Matthew because of his sexual orientation,” said Brent Childers, executive director of Faith in America, a group that addresses harm done to gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people by “misguided religious teachings.”

Several telephone messages for church leaders, including Jane Whaley, were not returned. But Whaley has told the AP that her church has become a “target” — and they have spent millions in the past fighting off claims of abuse.

Rutherford County Sheriff Chris Francis and District Attorney Brad Greenway did not return telephone messages.

Justin Covington, 20, of Rutherfordton; Brooke Covington, 56, of Rutherfordton; Robert Walker Jr., 26, of Spindale; and Adam Bartley, 25, of Rutherfordton have been indicted on one count each of second-degree kidnapping and simple assault.

Sarah Covington Anderson, 27, of Rutherfordton, faces the same charges _ and one count of assault inflicting physical injury by strangulation. It’s unclear how the Covingtons are related, but the indictments show they live at the same Rutherfordton address.

The police documents and interviews with Fenner reveal details of the case.

Fenner’s family joined the church a few years ago at a time when Fenner said he was struggling with his sexuality.

He said he decided to attend the church and its school because of his mother.

“My mom and I were always really close and I just thought maybe I can keep an open mind and see if it works — see if I can change. Obviously, that was really a stupid decision because you can’t change who you are. But in my mind it seemed like the right thing to do,” he said.

During that period, he said he became a tutor, helping other students at the church, and going to services. He said church members suspected he was gay _ and later began harassing him, the police affidavit said.

But Fenner said nothing prepared him for what happened on Jan. 27, 2013.

After a nighttime church service, three members asked him to go to the back of the sanctuary.  In the affidavit, Fenner said the three were soon joined by about 20 others and they surrounded him. And that’s when “deliverance soon ensued.”

He said they began pushing him and hitting him and using “other violent measures” that were all part of the church’s way of trying to cure him of being gay.

It lasted about two hours before they let him leave.

When he got home, he said he told his mother, but she didn’t believe him _ even though he said he was covered in bruises.

He said he went to his grandparents’ house and he called the sheriff’s office. And he said that was the beginning of his struggle to get law enforcement to take action.

FBI turns animal cruelty into top-tier felony

Young people who torture and kill animals are prone to violence against people later in life if it goes unchecked, studies have shown. A new federal category for animal cruelty crimes will help root out those pet abusers before their behavior worsens and give a boost to prosecutions, an animal welfare group says.

For years, the FBI has filed animal abuse under the label “other” along with a variety of lesser crimes, making cruelty hard to find, hard to count and hard to track. The bureau announced this month that it would make animal cruelty a Group A felony with its own category — the same way crimes like homicide, arson and assault are listed.

“It will help get better sentences, sway juries and make for better plea bargains,” said Madeline Bernstein, president and CEO of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Los Angeles and a former New York prosecutor.

The category also will help identify young offenders, and a defendant might realize “if he gets help now, he won’t turn into Jeffrey Dahmer,” she said.

Law enforcement agencies will have to report incidents and arrests in four areas: simple or gross neglect; intentional abuse and torture; organized abuse, including dogfighting and cockfighting; and animal sexual abuse, the FBI said in statement. The bureau didn’t answer questions beyond a short statement.

“The immediate benefit is it will be in front of law enforcement every month when they have to do their crime reports,” said John Thompson, interim executive director of the National Sheriffs’ Association who worked to get the new animal cruelty category instituted. “That’s something we have never seen.”

Officers will start to see the data are facts and “not just somebody saying the ‘Son of Sam’ killed animals before he went to human victims and 70-some percent of the school shooters abused animals prior to doing their acts before people,” said Thompson, a retired assistant sheriff from Prince George’s County, Maryland.

FBI studies show that serial killers like Dahmer impaled the heads of dogs, frogs and cats on sticks; David Berkowitz, known as the “Son of Sam,” poisoned his mother’s parakeet; and Albert DeSalvo, aka the “Boston Strangler,” trapped cats and dogs in wooden crates and killed them by shooting arrows through the boxes.

It will take time and money to update FBI and law enforcement databases nationwide, revise manuals and send out guidelines, Thompson said, so there won’t be any data collected until January 2016. After that, it will take several months before there are numbers to analyze.

The new animal cruelty statistics will allow police and counselors to work with children who show early signs of trouble, so a preschooler hurting animals today isn’t going to be hurting a person two years from now, Bernstein said.

The FBI’s category will track crimes nationwide and is bound to give animal cruelty laws in all 50 states more clout. Many states are seeing more of those convicted of animal cruelty being sentenced to prison, in marked contrast to years past.

Whether talking about state laws or the FBI change, it is clear “that regardless of whether people care about how animals are treated, people — like legislators and judges — care about humans, and they can’t deny the data,” said Natasha Dolezal, director of the animal law program in the Center for Animal Law Studies at Lewis & Clark College in Portland, Oregon.

On the Web

 National Sheriffs’ Association: www.sheriffs.org

 Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Los Angeles: www.spcala.com

 Center for Animal Law Studies: law.lclark.edu/centers/animal_law_studies