Cracks in nuclear reactors prompt call for worldwide inspections

The Wisconsin Gazette

The discovery of thousands of additional cracks in critical components of two Belgian nuclear reactors prompted Greenpeace to call for immediate checks of nuclear power plants worldwide. 

The cracks were found in the steel nuclear reactor pressure vessels in nuclear reactors Doel 3 and Tihange 2 in Belgium. The vessels contain highly radioactive nuclear fuel cores and the failure of the components can cause catastrophic nuclear accidents, according to Greenpeace.

On Feb. 13, two leading material scientists announced that the pervasive and unexpected cracking could be related to corrosion from normal operation, with potential implications for reactors worldwide.

Responding, Greenpeace Belgium energy campaigner Eloi Glorieux, said, “What we are seeing in Belgium is potentially devastating for nuclear reactors globally due to the increased risk of a catastrophic failure. Nuclear regulators worldwide must require reactor inspections as soon as possible, and no later than the next scheduled maintenance shutdown. If damage is discovered, the reactors must remain shut down until and unless safety and pressure vessel integrity can be guaranteed. The nuclear industry, already in crisis, is faced with an aging nuclear reactor fleet at increasing risk of severe disaster.”

In reaction to the findings, the director-general of the Belgian nuclear regulator of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control has said that this could be a problem for the entire nuclear industry globally. He added that the solution is to begin the careful inspection of 430 nuclear power plants worldwide.

Problems were initially discovered in the summer of 2012 and both the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 reactors have been shut down since March 2014, after additional tests revealed advanced embrittlement of the steel of the test sample. The integrity of the pressure vessel must be absolute due to the radioactive releases that would result if this component were to fail.

As nuclear reactors age, radiation causes pressure vessel damage, or embrittlement, of the steel. According to the statements of the two materials scientists on Feb 13, the damage in the Belgian reactors may be partially caused by a problem resulting from the migration of hydrogen into cracks in the steel liner of the vessel — exacerbating and expanding that cracking. Greenpeace said it appears that hydrogen from the water within the vessel that cools the reactor core is getting inside the liner, reacting and destroying the pressure vessel from within.

FANC has issued a statement confirming that the additional tests conducted in 2014 revealed 13,047 cracks in Doel 3 and 3,149 in Tihange 2.

On Feb. 15, the nuclear reactor operator, announced that it would be prepared to “sacrifice” one of its reactors to conduct further destructive tests of the reactor pressure vessel for research. Several years ago, the operator dismissed the cracks as being the result of manufacturing problems during construction in the late 1970s in the Netherlands, but still failed to table evidence for this assumption.

The Belgian regulator also stated that the most likely cause was manufacturing, but could not prove it and added that it may be due to other causes.

The recent announcements of the materials scientists, indicate that this problem could be far beyond manufacturing.

If confirmed, it means that the safety of every nuclear reactor on the planet could be significantly compromised.

There are 435 commercial nuclear reactors worldwide, with an average age of 28.5 years in mid 2014. Of these, 170 reactors — 44 percent — have been operating for 30 years or more and 39 reactors have operated for more than 40 years.

“As we approach the fourth anniversary of the Fukushima-daiichi nuclear disaster, evidence has emerged that demands immediate action to prevent another catastrophe,” said Glorieux. “Thousands of previously unknown cracks in critical components of two reactors point to a potentially endemic and significant safety problem for reactors globally. Continuing to operate any reactor with such cracking would be an absolutely unacceptable risk to public safety. Greenpeace demands detailed inspections of all nuclear reactors worldwide, as conducted in Belgium, and the public release and scrutiny of the results. Any reactor with such cracking must be kept offline, until and unless the cracking is understood and safety is guaranteed. Anything less would be insane given the risk of a severe nuclear accident.”