Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary has added more than 150 new words and definitions for 2014, including “Yooper,” a nickname used for a native or resident of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
Also making the dictionary: “Hashtag,” “selfie” and “tweep,” reflecting the growing influence technology is having on human endeavor, especially social networking, which also is in the dictionary.
“Crowdfunding” joins “big data” and “gamification” and steampunk — “science fiction dealing with 19th-century societies dominated by historical or imagined steam-powered technology” — also have been added.
As has “catfish,” a technology-related term, refers to a person who sets up a false social networking profile for deceptive purposes. “Catfish” was popularized by the documentary and television series of the same name and by last year's strange story of football player Manti Te'o's non-existent girlfriend.
"So many of these new words show the impact of online connectivity to our lives and livelihoods," said Peter Sokolowski, editor at large for Merriam-Webster. "‘Tweep,’ ‘selfie’ and ‘hashtag’ refer to the ways we communicate and share as individuals. Words like ‘crowdfunding,’ ‘gamification’ and ‘big data’ show that the Internet has changed business in profound ways."
New culinary terms include “pho” ("a soup made of beef or chicken broth and rice noodles"), “turducken” ("a boneless chicken stuffed into a boneless duck stuffed into a boneless turkey") and the Canadian favorite “poutine” ("a dish of French fries covered with brown gravy and cheese curds").
Other additions include “freegan” and fracking.”