House Majority Leader Eric Cantor's startling primary loss last week to a tea party-backed opponent illustrates how the GOP finds itself paralyzed by immigration reform. The policy most party leaders agree is best for the Republican Party's future is risky for most House Republicans seeking re-election in the fall.
Almost all represent districts that are home to few minorities and they are in greater danger of losing to a primary challenger than to a Democrat in the general election. That leaves little incentive for the GOP-controlled House to even touch an immigration overhaul that would to grant citizenship to many of the 11 million people living in the country illegally.
Economics professor David Brat hammered Cantor, R-Va., for purportedly backing "amnesty" for people in the U.S. illegally during his primary challenge. He called his unexpected victory a wake-up call that "immigration reform is DOA." Others, however, said it was Cantor's reluctance to act on immigration reform that hurt him at the polls.
After Cantor's defeat, Republicans are left in a quandary before the 2016 election — what to do about an issue that's often a winner in primaries but could cripple the party in a White House race before a more diverse electorate.
"Pain can be a good teaching tool sometimes," said Mario H. Lopez, a Republican and executive director of the Hispanic Leadership Fund. "It may take another White House beat-down before some folks understand what kind of cliff they're walking over."
Many people involved in the immigration debate have similar predictions about what will happen next: The House takes no action on an immigration overhaul, President Barack Obama makes good on his promise to ease deportations by executive action later this summer, and that inflames the GOP even more, dooming any bill in 2015.
When the next presidential race gets underway, a broad field of the GOP's presidential candidates will be competing for the support of primary voters who are far more opposed to an immigration overhaul than most Americans.
To some Republicans, that brings back memories of 2012, when Republican Mitt Romney adopted tough-on-illegal-immigration rhetoric to win the Republican presidential primaries. On Election Day, Hispanic and Asian voters overwhelmingly backed Obama.
The lone policy recommendation of GOP's post-mortem on Romney's loss was to pass immigration reform. While 14 Republican senators voted for an immigration overhaul that chamber passed last year, the measure was declared dead on arrival in the House. Republican lawmakers, many of whom were focused on the midterms, sought to avoid angering their base.
Immigration skeptics argue that's the right way for the party to appeal to the working class.
"There aren't enough rich people and there aren't enough businesspeople to elect people to office," said Roy Beck, president of Numbers USA, which advocates for less immigration and believes those in favor of an overhaul are catering to financial elites who want to import cheaper workers into the U.S. "They have to have wage-earners."
Immigrant rights groups complained that Cantor was part of the reason the overhaul died in the House, but as majority leader he opened the door to narrower measures that would grant citizenship to people brought to the U.S. illegally as children. That was enough to fuel his primary challenger.
It wasn't immigration alone that doomed Cantor. The Virginia congressman sowed resentment by spending too much time focused on national issues as majority leader and not enough tending to his district. Others note that South Carolina GOP Sen. Lindsey Graham, a chief architect of the Senate's immigration overhaul, easily won his primary against a batch of tea party challengers.
And yet, the message appears clear to Republicans in Congress. Last week, House Speaker John Boehner said a bill probably wouldn't be possible this year.
"Perception is reality in politics, and the perception among Republican members of Congress is going to be that (Cantor) lost because he took a somewhat squishy stance on immigration," said Republican pollster Glen Bolger, who expects similar caution among 2016 hopefuls.
"You'll see the volume turned way down on that," Bolger said. "You're going to see a lot more caution and a lot less risk-taking."
Among the 2016 prospects taking care with the issue is Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul, who has received a tepid reaction from some Republican activists for a proposal that would let some people living in the U.S. illegally receive citizenship. He told reporters this week the immigration debate has become too charged.
"We're trapped in this rhetoric and we have to get beyond that," Paul said.
Florida Sen. Marco Rubio changed course on immigration in the wake of a backlash from GOP activists that followed his work as one of the eight co-authors of the Senate overhaul. He now argues the country shouldn't consider creating a citizenship pathway until it secures its southern border.
"That was true before last night," Rubio said the day after Cantor lost. "That's especially true now."
Matt Schlapp, a Republican consultant who worked for President George W. Bush, said the varying politics of immigration doom the prospects for any near-term action. After this year's midterms, Democrats are sure to spend the next two years beating up on Republicans for the lack of movement, which in turn will lead the GOP to dig in deeper.
"If we have divided government, the politics have to work for both parties," Schlapp said. "Until we get these things worked out, this just isn't going to happen."